Views:107 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2019-08-05 Origin:Site
Underwater archaeology is a branch of archaeology, an extension of terrestrial field archaeology to waters. It takes human underwater cultural heritage as the research object, investigates, surveys and excavates the ancient relics and relics submerged under the rivers and lakes, and uses the unique viewpoints and research methods of archaeology as a means to understand the problem and make it play its role.
Archaeology is part of historical science, but it is different from traditional history. Compared with historical science, with literature as the main research object, the physical data in archaeology occupies a larger proportion. The scientific means of achieving these results are the following four steps: investigation, mining, reporting data, and research analysis.
Historically, due to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, some waterfront sites, ports, and tombs have been sunk in the water; under some ancient routes, a large number of ancient shipwrecks and cultural relics have been preserved. In addition to excavating underwater ancient sites, salvaging shipwrecks and waters, underwater archaeology also studies ancient shipbuilding, navigation, maritime traffic and trade. A lot of expertise is used in the work to solve the problem of underwater operations. At the beginning of the 20th century, underwater archaeological investigations were carried out, but it was not until the Second World War that diving techniques and equipment were developed and underwater archaeology was established. At the same time, underwater archaeology is a marginal discipline that requires more technical support from related disciplines such as diving engineering technology and marine exploration technology.
Team members engaged in underwater archaeology must receive more professional archaeological training in addition to diving technical training, and have the ability to actually operate the underwater exploration, measurement and mapping, and camera photography. A small number of underwater archaeologists also have the license to independently drive ships such as boats and speedboats.
Geophysical equipment used in underwater archaeology mainly includes multi-beam underwater sonar, shallow formation profiler, side sonar, short baseline system, underwater robot (ROV) and so on. These equipments are hung on the ship's side, and the probe is placed in the water. While the ship is moving, the seabed structure can be clearly understood in real time, and the three-dimensional image of the seabed topography is presented. The navigation and the seabed have a more intuitive and comprehensive analysis. It is convenient for extensive detection and discovery of water remnants in a wide range.
From a global perspective, the history of underwater archaeology is not long. In the 1930s, because of the advent of diving masks, humans took a major step toward the underwater world. Since the advent of modern archaeology in the mid-19th century, with the confirmation of the site on the Swiss lake, and the scientific investigation and excavation of underwater ancient remains, the establishment of underwater archaeology is standard.
In 1943, the French invented the "snorkel" and solved the underwater breathing problem below 10 meters. Archaeologists finally got rid of the dependence on professional divers.
In 1960, the American archaeologist George Bass was invited to investigate and excavate the 7th century Byzantine shipwreck site in Cape Gelidonya, and the first archaeologists began to apply archaeological methods to the excavation and research of underwater sites. The pioneering practice of archaeological methods under water is a milestone in the history of underwater archaeology.
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(2) Diving bag
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